Benchmarking Engaged Institutions
Bellah, N., Madsen, R., Sullivan, W., & Tipton, S. (1996). Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in american life. New York: Harper & Row.
Habits of the Heart describes the social significance of faiths ranging from "Sheilaism" (practiced by a California nurse named Sheila) to conservative Christianity. Through interviews with Americans in different groups the author provides much insight into what Americans think about and how their lives are intertwined with institutions of politics, education, religion, and community. The author provides an antidote to the American sickness - a quest for democratic community that draws on our diverse civic and religious traditions. It has contributed to a vigorous scholarly and popular debate.
Boyer, Ernest. (1996). The scholarship of engagement. Journal of Public Outreach 1,1,11-20.
Boyer suggests that American education has moved away from its traditional commitment to public service and argues for a new commitment to service that he calls the scholarship of engagement. He describes a new paradigm of scholarship (as articulated in a Carnegie Foundation report entitled Scholarship Reconsidered) that assigns four "interlocking functions" to the professoriate. The first, scholarship of discovery, is basic research, pushing back the frontiers of human knowledge. The scholarship of integration involves placing discoveries within a larger context and initiating more interdisciplinary conversations leading to a new paradigm of knowledge. The scholarship of sharing knowledge recognizes the communal nature of scholarship and also recognizes other audiences for scholarship than the scholar's peers. Finally, the report calls for the application of knowledge as a reflective practice in which theory and practice inform each other.
- - -. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. New York: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
In this report by the Carnegie Foundation, Boyer argues for a broader understanding of scholarship that takes into account the scope of faculty activity more fully than does the traditional categories of teaching and research.
The text questions the reward system that pushes faculty toward research and away from teaching. Boyer offers new paradigms of balancing what he suggests are the four general areas scholarship: discovery, integration of knowledge, teaching, and service.
Bringle, R. G., Games, R., & Malloy, E.A. (Eds.). (1990). Colleges and universities as citizens. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
This book is part of the Universities as Citizens Higher Education Series initiated by the Indiana Campus Compact to provide resources to help higher education enhance community engagement. It contains essays on the role of campuses in civic education, successful institutional change, campus-community partnerships, tailoring change to institutional culture, how community change is consistent with other changes in higher education, and the importance of assessing accomplishments.
Chibucos, T. R. & Lerner, R. M. (Eds.). (1999). Serving children and families through community-university partnerships: Success stories. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
This text illustrates work related to university outreach by presenting several dozen success stories of community-university partnerships that serve to improve the lives of children, youth, and families. These examples are obtained through collaborations from across the country and reflect the work of an array of colleges and universities. These partnerships involve a variety of target audiences, from childhood through old age and involving a diverse collection of groups and organizations.
Driscoll, A. & Lynton, E. A. (1999). Making outreach visible: A guide to documenting professional service and outreach. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education.
This text offers specifics for developing a review process tailored to a campus's unique culture and is the companion piece Making the Case for Professional Service by Ernest Lynton. Procedures outline the formation of collaborative teams of faculty and administrators developed to reach consensus on goals, definitions, and logistics through guided reflection and discussion of prototype portfolios. Sixteen prototypes are included in the volume.
Ehrlich, T. (1995). The Courage to inquire: Ideals and realities in higher education. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
It is stressed in this text that university presidents cannot succeed without a "deep-textured involvement" in academic matters, which is the heart of a university. This involvement includes: nurturing great teaching, advancing knowledge through research, and building bridges among disciplines. The author recommends contracts rather than tenure for faculty who do not engage in scholarly work and is committed to ethics instruction. Ehrlich illustrates five key qualities a university president need to succeed: a willingness to help others, an ability to ask the right questions, an openness to new perspectives, the determination to choose key priorities and stick to them, and the aspiration to dream big dreams and make them a reality.
Ellis, J. and Noyes, H. (1990). By the people: A history of americans as volunteers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Ellis and Noyes demonstrate how volunteers have pioneered community action and social change through three centuries of American life. The text also chronicles the variety of activities volunteers join in today and explores the prospects for the future of volunteerism.
Fairweather, S. (1996). Faculty work and public trust. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
This text explores the discrepancies between today's predominant academic environment and the changing societal needs of America's colleges and universities. Through extensive data on the nature, time analysis, and compensation of faculty work, drawing on both large-scale surveys and qualitative case studies the author examines faculty work and rewards. He critically examines the socialization processes and reward structures which encourage faculty to think more about research than teaching, to stress publishing volume more than quality, and to treat the publication of research as the principal source of prestige for faculty members and their institutions.
Glassick, Charles E., Taylor Huber, M. & Maeroff, G.I. (1997). Scholarship assessed: Evaluation of the professoriate. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
This text offers a new paradigm for evaluating scholarship of engagement, a scholarship that better integrates the full range of scholarly activity, research, teaching, and service. It includes discussion of changes in thinking about scholarship and ideas about developing criteria for evaluating a full range of scholarship and for documenting scholarly efforts. It also includes, as appendices, the Questionnaire for the National Survey on the Reexamination of Faculty Roles and Rewards and the results of that survey.
Harkavy, I & Benson, L. (1998). De-Platonizing and democratizing education as the bases of service learning. In R.A. Rhoads & J. Howard (Eds.), Service learning: Pedagogy and research (pp. 11-19). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
This essay focuses on the theoretical bases of academic service learning with particular attention to John Dewey's contributions to the field. The service learning movement is conceptualized as part of an ongoing-and still unsuccessful-effort to "de-Platonize" and democratize American higher education in particular and American schooling in general.
Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land Grant Universities. (1999). Returning to our roots: The engaged institution. Washington, DC: National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges.
This report of the Kellogg Commission, made up primarily of presidents and chancellors from twenty-five public universities, recommends five strategies to advance "engagement": 1) transforming thinking about service so that engagement becomes a priority and central part of institutional mission; 2) developing an engagement plan; 3) encouraging interdisciplinary scholarship, research, and teaching; 4) developing incentives to encourage faculty involvement in engagement efforts; 5) and securing stable funding to support engagement. It also recommends seven characteristics which define an engaged university: 1) responsiveness; 2) respect for partners; 2) academic neutrality; 4) accessibility; 5) integration; 6) coordination; and 7) resource partnerships.
Lynton, E. (1995). Making the case for professional service. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education.
This text considers what professional service is, why it is needed, and how it can be documented and evaluated. The author addresses the challenge of fulfilling a campus mission while at the same time developing professional service-outreach by faculty based on their professional expertise. Through the use of five case studies of actual projects examples provide how faculty service is successfully conceptualized, performed, evaluated, and rewarded.
Michigan State University. (1996). Points of distinction: A guidebook for planning & evaluating quality outreach (Revised). East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Board of Trustees.
This useful tool was create by Michigan State University to assist academic units, faculty leaders, and the higher education community as they plan, monitor, evaluate, and reward outreach efforts. This guidebook is divided into three sections: The Academic Unit: Planning and Evaluating the Outreach Enterprise; The Individual: Planning and Evaluating Faculty Outreach Efforts; and The Project: Evaluating Quality Outreach. It also provides a matrix describing the dimensions of quality outreach: significance, context, scholarship, and impact. The appendix includes tools for defining outreach, unit planning and priority setting, rewarding quality outreach, evaluating unit outreach, developing a faculty outreach portfolio, and evaluating individual outreach.
Palmer, J. (1998). The courage to teach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The author contends in this text that good teachers are able to weave a complex web of connections among themselves, their subjects, and their students, so that students can learn to weave a world for themselves. These connections made by good teachers are held not in their methods but in their hearts--the place where intellect and emotion and spirit and will converge in the human self.
Sandmann, L. R., Foster-Fishman, P.G., Lloyd, J., Rauhe, W., and Rosaen, C. (2000). Managing critical tensions: How to strengthen the scholarship component of outreach. Change 32,1, 44-52.
This article examines ways that faculty can balance the community demands for scholarship of engagement and their institution's expectations regarding teaching and research with their own scholarly interests. It also explores the different perspectives among community, institution, and scholar, which create tensions in the implementation and design of outreach scholarship programs.
Schon, D.A. (1995). The new scholarship requires a new epistemology. Change, November/December, 27-34.
This article argues that the new norms of scholarship championed by Ernest Boyer in "Scholarship Reconsidered" conflict with the norms of technical rationality, the fundamental epistemology of research universities, such that they cannot gain legitimacy in institutions exclusively dedicated to technical rationality. The new forms of scholarship imply action research, and new institutional epistemology must allow for the practitioner's reflection and action. An illustration of this kind of research is included with the epistemological, institutional, and political issues it raises.
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